Summer is a season when parents need to be especially vigilant about their children’s safety. One of the biggest summer risks starts when the pools open for business. What summer vacation signifies for youth is cooling off from the summertime heat by jumping and playing in a pool. For children, the neighborhood pool means freedom, friends, and fun. For parents however, their immediate concern needs to be, “safety first!” As beautiful and harmless as backyard appears, parents must remember it can be dangerous and even lethal for their children. A 2013 report found that children younger than 15 represented 78% of deaths from pool-related injuries. These data certainly cast a dark shadow over the image of fun in the sun. Since when did swimming at the pool become dangerous? The report “Pool and Spa Submersions: Estimated Injuries and Reported Fatalities” discusses findings related to this class of injuries. This 2013 report found that the majority of these pool-related fatalities involved children “15 years or younger” at neighborhood pools. Interestingly enough, the report also found interesting demographic information related to these incidents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found African American and Hispanic children at higher risk of drowning. Particularly, African American children, between ages 5 and 19, were “six times more likely to drown in pools [versus] white and Hispanic children.” They also found that 70% and 62% of African American and Hispanic children, respectively, could not swim adequately. The report did not identify the exact origins behind these figures but point out a serious health hazard threatening a large group of children. How do we solve the problem of childhood drownings? Should we outlaw community and backyard pools? No, we need to increase our efforts to make sure every child learns to swim and know how to safely be around water. Thanks to organizations like the American Red Cross, the YMCA, and most public swim facilities, families can teach their children how to swim and remain safe during this and all future summer seasons. Proper swimming is a vital life skill that all beachgoers, children and parents should know. It may seem obvious but the solution to childhood drownings is really simple, professionally taught swim lessons along with good adult supervision around water. Smo Notes: http://www.cpsc.gov/en/Newsroom/News-Releases/2013/Pool-Safely-Call-to-Action/ Written collaboratively by Norman Spencer an Paul Smolen M.D.